Richard P. Nielsen, Professor Carroll School of Management Boston College firstname.lastname@example.org
Quaker and Ignation Business Ethics
Abstract Quaker and Ignatian Business Ethics Adrian Cadbury, the Quaker former CEO and Chairman of the Quaker founded business, Cadbury Schweppes PLC. (2003), observed that: “The Society [of Friends, Quakers] was founded by George Fox in 1650. His revelation was that the divine presence was within….This inspired him to preach that there was, in his words, ‘That of God in every man’ [similar to the Ignatian “In all things” foundational principle, H. Egan, S.J., 1987]….They saw life as a whole; religion was not just for Sundays [or charity]. One of the Queries Quakers are asked to consider, is: ‘Do you maintain strict integrity in your business transactions and in your relations with individuals and organizations?’.... Another belief was the importance of arriving at decisions by agreement [similar to the Ignatian practice of communal discernment, M. Sheeran, S.]. ,1983). Voting could mean that the views of minorities were disregarded and overridden. The aim was to arrive at a ‘sense of the meeting’. In industrial relations , which was my field in the firm, it often meant considerable time spent in debate and argument, it also meant that decisions once arrived at could be implemented quickly and with commitment….The encouragement to look for a better way forward, rather than accept the world as it is, stemmed from the belief that you should follow the Divine Light within yourself. It made Quakers ready to challenge accepted practices and to innovate.” This paper considers the following points: (1) There were once many large Quaker businesses such as Barclays Bank, Lloyds Bank, Cadbury Schweppes, Sony (a Japanese Quaker founder), Lever Brothers (Unilever), Waterford Crystal, Wharton-Bethlehem Steel, Imperial Oil, Price and Waterhouse, Strawbridge and Clothier, and many others, but there were few Quakers then and few today; (2) Quaker business ethics practices and innovations are described; (3) Today there are many Quaker schools, universities, and NGOs with Quaker origins such as Bryn Mawr College, Cornell University, Guilford College, Haverford College, Johns Hopkins University, Swarthmore College, the Wharton School of Finance and Commerce of the University of Pennsylvania, and many others; (4) The foundational Quaker epistemology, ethics, and politics principles that drive Quaker business ethics are discussed; (5) Similarities to Ignatian epistemology, ethics, and politics are analyzed particularly with respect to the foundational Ignatian and Quaker principle that there is that of God [from a theological perspective], or, that of goodness, truth, and beauty [from a philosophical perspective] “In all things” (Nielsen, 2017a) and “communal discernment” (M. Sheeran1983); (6) The decline of Quaker business ethics epistemology and politics within Quaker businesses, universities, and schools is considered (2017b); (7) the question is asked about whether there may be a similar decline of Ignatian business ethics epistemoly and politics within Jesuit educational institutions; and, (8) the question of what can be done to revitalize and/or strengthen Ignatian and Quaker business ethics epistemology and politics within Quaker and Ignatian institutions is addressed. The example of the Ignatian and Quaker inspired Andre Delbecq and the Quaker inspired Adam Curle as professors and in their universities are considered throughout the paper. References Aristotle. 2008. Aristotle: Protrepticus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries. Aristotle. 2004. The Eudemian Ethics. On Virtues and Vices. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Loeb Classical Library. Aristotle. 1981. The Ethics of Aristotle. The Nicomachean Ethics. New York: Penguin Books. Benson, Lewis. (1968). Catholic Quakerism. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends. Bernstein, R. J. (1971). Praxis and Action. University of Pennsylvania Press. Berrigan, Daniel. (1987). To dwell in peace: An autobiography. Harper and Row. Boff, Clodovis. (1987). Theology and praxis: Epistemological foundations. Orbis. Cadbury, Adrian. (2003). Beliefs and Business: The experience of Quaker Companies. In Angell, S.W. & Dandelion, B.P. The Oxford Handbook of Quaker Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Curle, Adam. (1973). Education for liberation. Tavistock Publications. Curle, Adam. (1986). In the Middle: Nonofficial mediation in violent situations. Berg, Leamington, Spa. Curle, Adam. (1990). Tools for transformation: A personal study. Hawthorn Press. Delbecq, A. & Van de Ven, A. (1971). A group process model for problem identification and program planning. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 74, 4: 466- 492. Delbecq, A. , Van de Ven, A. & Gustafson, D.H. (1975). Group techniques for program planning: A guide to Nominal Group and Delphi Processes. Glenview, IL.: Scott- Foresman. Delbecq, A. L. (1999). Christian spirituality and contemporary business leadership. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(4), 345-354. Delbecq, A. (2000). Spirituality for business leadership. Journal of Management Inquiry, 9(2), 117-128. Delbecq, A. (2004.) How the religious traditions of calling and spiritual friendship shaped my life as a teacher/scholar. Management Communication Quarterly, 17, 4: 621-627. Delbecq, A. L. (2005). Spiritually-Informed Management Theory Overlaying the Experience of Teaching Managers. Journal of Management Inquiry, 14(3), 242- 246. Egan, S.J., Harvery D. 1982. What are they saying about mysticism. N.Y.: Paulist Press. Egan, S.J., Harvey D. 1987. Ignatius Loyola the mystic. Wilmington, Delaware: Michael Glazer. Eikeland, O. (2008). The Ways of Aristotle. Peter Lang. Fourez, Gerard. (1982). Liberation Ethics. Temple University Press. Friere, Paulo. (1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Herder and Herder. Gadamer, Hans-Georg. (1989). Truth and method. N.Y.: Crossroad. Greenleaf, Robert K. (1977). Servant leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. N.Y.: Paulist Press. James, William. (1902). The varieties of religious experience. N.Y. The Modern Library. Johnson, C.E. (2012). Meeting the ethical challenges of leadership: Casting light or shadow. Los Angeles: Sage. Greenleaf, R. K. (1977). Servant Leadership. Paulist Press. Korth, S. J. (2008). Ignatian Pedagogy: A practical approach. A Jesuit education reader, 280-284. Monan, J. Donald. (1968). Moral knowledge and its methodology in Aristotle. Oxford University Press. Nearing, Scott. (1972). The making of a radical. N.Y.: Harper and Row. Nielsen, Richard. P. (1996). The politics of ethics. Oxford University Press. Nielsen, Richard P. (1998). Quaker foundations for Greenleaf’s servant leadership and “Friendly disentangling” Method,” in Spears, L.C. 1998). Eds. Insights on leadership: Service, stewardship, spirit, and servant-leadership. N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons. Nielsen, R.P. (2010). Practitioner based theory building in organizational ethics. Journal of Business Ethics. Nielsen, R.P. and Massa, F.G. (2013). Reintegrating ethics and institutional theory, Journal of Business Ethics, 112 (4), 385-395. Nielsen, R.P. (2014). Hannah Arendt. In Jenny Helin, Tor Hernes, Daniel Hjorth, and Robin Holt. The Oxford handbook of process philosophy and organization studies. Oxford University Press. Nielsen, R.P. (2016). Action-research as ethics praxis method, Journal of Business Ethics, 135 (3), 419-428. Nielsen, R.P. (2017). Who do we identify with?: Ontological and epistemological challenges of spanning different domains of academic-practitioner praxis. In Jean Bartunek and Jane McKensie, Eds. Academic practitioner research partnerships: Developments, complexities and opportunities. London: Routledge. Nielsen, R.P. (2017a). Toward An Integrated “In All Things” Based Ignatian and Praxis Based Aristotelian Theory Building Epistemology. Paper presented at the 2017 Colleagues in Jesuit Business Education conference, Creighton University. Nielsen, R. P. (2017b). Quaker business ethics. Paper presented at Creighton University. Palmer, Parker J. (1990). The active life: A spirituality of work, creativity, and caring. Harper and Row. Parker, Parker J. (2000). Let your life speak: Listening for the voice of vocation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Palmer, Donald. (2012). Normal organizational wrongdoing: A critical analysis of theories of misconduct in and by organizations. Oxford University Press. Pierce, J. L., & Delbecq, A. L. (1977). Organization structure, individual attitudes and innovation. Academy of management review, 2(1), 27-37. Sheeran, S.J. Michael J. (1983). Beyond majority rule: Voteless decisions in the Religious Society of Friends. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends. Spears, L.C. 1998). Eds. Insights on leadership: Service, stewardship, spirit, and servant- leadership. N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons. Van de Ven, A. H., & Delbecq, A. L. (1974). The effectiveness of nominal, Delphi, and interacting group decision making processes. Academy of management Journal, 17(4), 605-621. Van de Ven, A. H., & Delbecq, A. L. (1974). A task contingent model of work-unit structure. Administrative Science Quarterly, 183-197. Van de Ven, Andrew H. (2007). Engaged scholarship. Oxford: Oxford University Press.